Nadia Anghelescu

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Table of contents

Author’s note

I. The ancient Arabs: Bedouins and Arab speakers
1. Briefly about the ancient sedentary and Bedouin Arabs
2. What does “Arab” mean?
3. What the others call “Arabs”

II. The beginnings of Islam and the Arab conquests. Arabization.
1. The Arab prophet and the beginnings of Islam
2. The Arab conquests and the establishment of the Arab Islamic Empire
3. The Arabization of the conquered territories

III. Arabs and foreigners in the Arab Islamic Empire
1. Early expressions of national identity
2. Who are the “foreigners” in the Arab space?
3. The movement against the Arabs’ supremacy: al-shu'ubiyya 

IV. The self-legitimating discourse: al-Jahiz
1. Briefly about al-Jahiz and his books
2. Kitab al-bayan as a legitimating document of Arab identity
3. Al-Jahiz about Arabs and non-Arabs

V. Identity myths  
1. Arabic and Arab writing 
2. The desert and its people
3. Islam and the Bedouins
4. A myth is born
5. The Arabic of the Bedouins and the “Bedouinization” of Arabic
6. The idealized Bedouins

VI. Arab culture and Arab Islamic culture
1. The literature of the Arabs
2. Love in Arab poetry and prose
3. Arab humanism

VII. Arabic and Arab culture after the disintegration of the Arab Islamic Empire
1. Arabs and their culture in the Dark Ages 
2. Arabic and Arab culture with the Christians of the Orient (the “Dark Ages”)
3. The Arab printing press: hypotheses on its origins 

VIII. The “Renaissance” of Arab culture
1. Renaissance (Nahda): an overview
2. Overview of Renaissance belles-lettres
3. Central figures of the Arab Renaissance
4. Translations in the era of national conscience reawakening 

IX. Arabs and «Arabism» in the Ottoman Empire
1. Preliminary observations
2. The place of Arab and Arabic in the pre-nationalist era
3. The Young Turks policy of Turkification
4. The Arabs’ reaction to the policy of Turkification

X.  Arab nationalism during the fall of the Ottoman Empire and after the coming of the European powers 
1. The European penetration into the Near East and the Arabs’ reaction
2. Nationalism and nationalists in Syria after the First World War
3. Egypt during the reawakening of its national conscience
4. Arab nationalism and other identities in the modern Arab world 

XI. Arabic in modern times
1. General remarks
2. Diglossia and language levels from the perspective of Arab and Western researchers
3. Bilingualism and linguistic contacts in the Arab space
4. The attitude towards languages in direct competition
5. Linguistic politics in the Arab world. Arabization 

XII. Briefly about Arabs and Arab culture in the era of globalization
1. The complex relationship to the West
2. The attitude towards change
3. Arab culture, modernization and globalization 
4. A plea for dialogue